Factors Affecting Uncooperative Behaviors and the Challenges when Handling Paediatric Patients: Framework for Optometry Practice


  • Sharifah Nadirah Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Mohd Zaki Awg Isa Management and Science University (MSU)


Visual impairment, Child family background, Optometry practice environment, Optometrist behavior


Poor vision accounts for nearly half of all childhood disability in Malaysia and most other developing countries. Overall, vision impairment (VI) among children is estimated 4% of the world's impaired vision. VI refers to visual acuity (VA) less than 6/120). One-third of the vision impairment and blindness globally are recognised to vision problems from childhood. Visual Impairment (VI) prevalence among Malaysian children is still lacking, but it is predicted to increase in years to come. This study aimed to explore the association of uncooperative behaviour during an eye examination with prevailing VI in Malaysia. A modified Frankl scale method was used to evaluate the uncooperative behaviour in pediatric patients during eye examinations. This article highlights a framework of various factors leading to a child’s uncooperative behaviours, classifications of child behavior and the challenges faced when handling pediatric patients during an eye examination in optometry practice.

Author Biographies

Sharifah Nadirah, Management and Science University (MSU)

Post Graduate Centre, Management & Science University

Mohd Zaki Awg Isa, Management and Science University (MSU)

1. Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Management & Science University
2. MSU Centre of Excellence for Vision and Eyecare (MSU-iCARE), Management & Science University
MSU Eye Centre, Management and Science University