Refractive Errors among Urban Poor Population in Shah Alam, Selangor:

The Prevention of Blindness Project

Authors

  • Mohd Zaki Awg Isa Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Azarina Abdullah Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Zurin Ferdawani Yacob Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Mohd Ferdaus Sari Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Fairuz Mohd Nordin Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Amalina Othman, Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Baqiatul’ Sabiqi ‘Asffi Rahmat Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Siti ‘Aisyah Ismail Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Subhadeep Dass Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Maryam Amiruddin Management and Science University (MSU)
  • Nahdiyah Azman Management and Science University (MSU)

Keywords:

Refractive errors, Vision problems, Myopia, Prevention of blindness, Urban poor

Abstract

International Association of Prevention Blindness (IAPB) reported 1.1 billion people worldwide live with vision loss. Ninety percent of vision loss is treatable or preventable. Management and Science University (MSU) prevention of blindness project (POB) is an outreach community project providing eye care accessibility to underserved communities. This paper aimed to report the prevalence of refractive errors among the urban poor population in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 433 participants were involved in a cross-sectional study. Spherical equivalent (SE) of 0.50 D in the worse eye is considered refractive errors, which SE of >-0.50 D is myopia, and SE of >050 D as hyperopia. Low myopia was defined as SE less than -3.00 D; moderate myopia is defined as SE between -3.00 to -5.99 D, and high myopia is defined as SE -6.00 D and above. Astigmatism is considered as cylindrical refraction greater than 0.50D in either eye. Anisometropia is defined as differences SE of 1D of equal with or greater between two eyes Myopia in one eye and hyperopia in the fellow eye SE difference than 0.50D is considered antimetropia. Presbyopia is defined as near vision worse than N6 at 40cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12. Out of 433 participants were recruited, 242 (55.68%) were male, and 191 (44.32%) were female and a mean age of 55.97(SD = 10.55). For types of refractive errors, 28.41% participants were presbyopia, 28.18% were myopia, 14.78% were hyperopia, 24.94% were emmetropia, 3.70% were antimetropia, and 54.04% were astigmatism. Most of the reported myopia cases have low myopia (79.51%), followed by moderate myopia (13.12%) and high myopia (7.38%). Approximately 75.06% of the population studied were affected by refractive errors and significantly associated with age. This study suggests a need for interventions to allevaiate refractive errors in urban poor areas and other communities affected by providing access and affordable eye care services.

Author Biographies

Mohd Zaki Awg Isa, Management and Science University (MSU)


1. Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University
2. MSU Eye Centre, Management and Science University
3. MSU Centre of Excellence for Vision and Eyecare (MSU-iCARE), Management and Science University

Azarina Abdullah, Management and Science University (MSU)

1.MSU Eye Centre, Management and Science University
 2. MSU Centre of Excellence for Vision and Eyecare (MSU-iCARE), Management and Science University

Zurin Ferdawani Yacob, Management and Science University (MSU)

 Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Mohd Ferdaus Sari, Management and Science University (MSU)

 Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Fairuz Mohd Nordin, Management and Science University (MSU)

 
Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Amalina Othman,, Management and Science University (MSU)

  
Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Baqiatul’ Sabiqi ‘Asffi Rahmat, Management and Science University (MSU)

 
Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Siti ‘Aisyah Ismail, Management and Science University (MSU)

 
Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Subhadeep Dass, Management and Science University (MSU)

 
Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Maryam Amiruddin, Management and Science University (MSU)

 
Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Nahdiyah Azman, Management and Science University (MSU)


Faculty of Health and Life Science, Management and Science University

Published

2021-06-15